Quantum computing hardware for HEP algorithms and sensing
M. Sohaib Alam, Sergey Belomestnykh, Nicholas Bornman,
Gustavo Cancelo, Yu-Chiu Chao, Mattia Checchin,
Vinh San Dinh, Anna Grassellino, Erik J. Gustafson,
Roni Harnik, Corey Rae Harrington McRae, Ziwen Huang,
Keshav Kapoor, Taeyoon Kim, James B. Kowalkowski,
Matthew J. Kramer, Yulia Krasnikova, Prem Kumar,
Doga Murat Kurkcuoglu, Henry Lamm, Adam L. Lyon,
Despina Milathianaki, Akshay Murthy, Josh Mutus,
Ivan Nekrashevich, JinSu Oh, A. Barış Özgüler,
Gabriel Nathan Perdue, Matthew Reagor, Alexander
Romanenko, J. A. Sauls, Leandro Stefanazzi, Norm M.
Tubman, Davide Venturelli, Changqing Wang, Xinyuan You,
David M. T. van Zanten, Lin Zhou, Shaojiang Zhu,
Quantum information science harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to realize computational algorithms with complexities vastly intractable by current computer platforms. Typical applications range from quantum chemistry to optimization problems and also include simulations for high energy physics. The recent maturing of quantum hardware has triggered preliminary explorations by several institutions (including Fermilab) of quantum hardware capable of demonstrating quantum advantage in multiple domains, from quantum computing to communications, to sensing. The Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems (SQMS) Center, led by Fermilab, is dedicated to providing breakthroughs in quantum computing and sensing, mediating quantum engineering and HEP based material science. The main goal of the Center is to deploy quantum systems with superior performance tailored to the algorithms used in high energy physics. In this Snowmass paper, we discuss the two most promising superconducting quantum architectures for HEP algorithms, i.e. three-level systems (qutrits) supported by transmon devices coupled to planar devices and multi-level systems (qudits with arbitrary N energy levels) supported by superconducting 3D cavities. For each architecture, we demonstrate exemplary HEP algorithms and identify the current challenges, ongoing work and future opportunities. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects and complexities of interconnecting the different architectures and individual computational nodes. Finally, we review several different strategies of error protection and correction and discuss their potential to improve the performance of the two architectures. This whitepaper seeks to reach out to the HEP community and drive progress in both HEP research and QIS hardware.
- Comment: 23 pages, 6 figures