Challenges and Opportunities of SRF theory for Next Generation Particle Accelerators
A. Gurevich, T. Kubo and J. A. Sauls
We suggest a program to establish theoretical performance limits of srf cavities using modern theories of nonequilibrium superconductivity under a strong electromagnetic field. These theories will be used to calculate the main parameter of merit of srf cavities: the quality factor Q and its dependencies on the field amplitude, temperature and frequency, which would allow us to understand how far the srf cavity performance could be pushed from the current state of the art. Given that the quality factor is determined by multiple mechanisms operating on very different length scales, we will address the interconnected problems of a nonlinear surface resistance, rf losses of vortices trapped in the cavity, the effect of materials defects and surface topography, and the opportunities to boost the srf performance by surface nano-structuring, impurity management and multilayers. We suggest the following directions of theoretical srf research to address the goals of boosting the performance of the next generation particle accelerators: 1. Establishing the Q limit, mechanisms of nonlinear surface resistance and the residual resistance in a nonequilibrium superconductor under a strong RF field. 2. Establishing the srf breakdown field limit, dynamic superheating field and its dependencies on frequency, temperature and concentration of impurities. 3. Losses due to trapped vortices and extreme dynamics of ultrafast vortices driven by strong rf Meissner currents in srf cavities. 4. Optimization of srf performance due to surface nanostructuring of the cavity surface, multilayers and impurity management.
- Comment: 13 pages, 1 figure